Monday, March 16, 2020

Definition and Examples of Lexicography

Definition and Examples of Lexicography Lexicography is the process of writing, editing, and/or compiling a dictionary.  An author or editor of a dictionary is called a lexicographer. The processes involved in the compilation and implementation of digital dictionaries (such as Merriam-Webster Online)  is known as  e-lexicography. The fundamental difference between lexicography and linguistics, says Sven Tarp, is that they have two completely different subject fields: The subject field of linguistics is language, whereas the subject field of lexicography is dictionaries and lexicographic works in general (Beyond Lexicography in  Lexicography at a Crossroads, 2009).In 1971, historical linguist and lexicographer Ladislav Zgusta published the first major international handbook on lexicography, Manual of Lexicography, which remains the standard text in the field. Etymology: From the Greek, word write Pronunciation: LEK-si-KOG-ra-fee Beginnings of English Lexicography The beginnings of English lexicography go back to the Old English period . . .. The language of the Roman Church was Latin; its priests and monks needed to be competent in Latin in order to conduct services and to read the Bible . . .. As English monks studied these Latin manuscripts, they would sometimes write the English translation above (or below) a Latin word in the text, to help their own learning, and as a guide to subsequent readers. These one-word translations, written between the lines of a manuscript, are called interlinear glosses; they are seen as the beginnings of (bilingual) lexicography. (Howard Jackson, Lexicography: An Introduction. Routledge, 2002) Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) and English Lexicography I am not yet so lost in lexicography, as to forget that words are the daughters of earth and that things are the sons of heaven.(Samuel Johnson)[Samuel] Johnson was not only innovative in his use of 114,000 citations to prove his definitions and the usage of words and connotations. He also noted the author who had first used a word or collocation and who had last used an obsolete word. He also took the liberty of adding prescriptive commentaries whenever there was doubt about usage.(Piet Van van Sterkenburg, A Practical Guide to Lexicography. John Benjamins, 2003) English Lexicography in the 20th Century In the English language area, the lexical orientation has long remained historical. The first edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary, by H.W. and F.G. Fowler, dates from 1911 and leans heavily on [James] Murrays New English Dictionary on Historical Principles [later renamed the Oxford English Dictionary]. It was also due to the fact that the first supplement to the OED was published in 1933 and the second was in preparation from 1950 onwards, to be published in four thick volumes under the general editorship of Robert Burchfield. Incidentally, that supplement did include swear words, sexual terms, colloquial speech etc.Innovations in the English lexicography were to be seen in the dictionaries by Longman and Collins, based on contemporary corpora of electronic texts and anchored entirely in a database structure. . . .In 1988, the first edition of the OED was made available on CD-ROM and the second edition in 1992.(Piet van Sterkenburg, The Dictionary: Definition and History. A Prac tical Guide to Lexicography, edited by Piet Van Sterkenburg. John Benjamins, 2003) Crowdsourcing and Contemporary Lexicography Websites such as those for Urban Dictionary and Wiktionary . . . offer what is known as bottoms include Twittersphere, sexting, cyberstalking and captcha. . . . Such shout-outs are the antithesis of traditional lexicography. . . . If the dictionary-maker is a humble archivist while the lexicon is being created, they become a deityor at least a cut-rate Mosesonce it appears and becomes a source of supposedly trustworthy information. . . .Letting in the street will end no worlds but will it improve the quality of dictionaries? Form as ever faces off content. The form can be democratic as all hell, but in lexicon-land, surely the content is what matters. . . .Reference should be online. The opportunities for presentation, for breadth of information and for sophisticated searches that would be impossible in a print dictionary are too good to miss. But if reference is to remain useful then it cannot become amateur hour. (Jonathon Green, Dictionaries Are Not Democratic. The Observer, September 13, 2012) The Lighter Side of Lexicography LEXICOGRAPHER, n. A pestilent fellow who, under the pretense of recording some particular stage in the development of a language, does what he can to arrest its growth, stiffen its flexibility and mechanize its methods. (Ambrose Bierce, The Devils Dictionary, 1911)

Friday, February 28, 2020

Electronic Commerce and Internet Law in Canada Assignment - 1

Electronic Commerce and Internet Law in Canada - Assignment Example The researcher states that under Canadian law, a copyright owner has the right to choose between actual damages or statutory damages under the Copyright Act. Actual damages will be the amount lost as a result of infringement and statutory damages can expose Jane to liability for $20,000 for each individual program that has been illegally copied. Online contracting in Novia Scotia is regulated by the Electronic Commerce Act, which adopts the Uniform Electronic Commerce Act of Canada (UECA). Additionally, the UECA adopts the United Nations 1996 Model Law on Electronic Commerce and the Novia Scotia’s Electronic Commerce Act (2000) is nearly identical to the UECA model. In the current scenario, the central issue of contention is whether Melvin is bound by the contract. The fundamental issues impacting online contracting are the common law concepts of offer, acceptance, and jurisdiction. Indeed Scassa & Deturbide highlight the central questions in online contracting being as follow s: â€Å"Is an owner of a web site merely soliciting offers, or is an offer being made that is capable of being accepted? When and where is acceptance made? What impact do electronic agents have on the offer and acceptance paradigm?†. Additionally, Section 20(1) of the UECA as embodied in the Electronic Commerce Act (2000) acknowledges that online interactive forms of communication constitute binding contracts. Moreover, online contracts are now completely recognized by Canadian courts in contractual disputes.

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Report - sustainability - compare the footprint of different countries Coursework

Report - sustainability - compare the footprint of different countries - Coursework Example In this report, the researcher will analyze what are the main factors that increase the water foot prints and how the water footprints can be lowered. Like other resources that help life on the earth to sustain, water is also an important component that helps the life to sustain on earth. Most of living organisms have more amount of water in their bodies besides other components. A normal human body has about 60percent of water and the rest 40% is other essential components. Seas and oceans cover almost 70% of the earth but the seawater is undrinkable as the water is saline and can damage the vital organs like kidneys, etc. The process of desalination water is quite expensive and requires a large amount of energy. Out of total water resources including saline seawater, 2.5 percent of the water can be drinkable but a major amount of drinkable water is found in the form of glaciers and only 1 percent of the water is for the human utilization (Johnson 2012). Some countries have more wat er resources as compared to the others. As the number of lakes and rivers present in the country is responsible for making the country full of drinkable water resources. In the similar way, a country with less rivers and lakes makes the country having less water resources. Having less water resources directly influences the human life as less water resources would influence the corps; farms, etc thus influence the food production. To minimize the water losses and water footprints we should cut down the excessive use of water. Like little alteration in the way we utilize the water can make big difference like how we utilize water during bath, during washing clothes, etc. The main concern is how the water is utilized in different countries. What are the water footprints in different countries and how the water footprints influence the water in some other regions? In this report, I will analyze what are the main factors that increase the water foot prints and how the water footprints c an be lowered. Methodology In this report, I will utilize the qualitative method as well as qualitative method for research. In qualitative research method, the secondary data collection method is utilized. In the secondary data collection, the data is collected from the previous research work associating with the topic of the research. The collected data is then analyzed and reviewed to extract the useful data from the raw data. In secondary data collection method, the previous work of other researchers and authors on the relevant topics is collected through various sources. The main source is the internet articles, journals and research works. Books on the other are

Friday, January 31, 2020

Intro to Decision Making Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Intro to Decision Making - Essay Example The methods that the Society employs are expansive. â€Å"Such methods include models for decision-making under conditions of uncertainty or multiple objectives; techniques of risk analysis and risk assessment; experimental and descriptive studies of decision-making behavior.† They also include, â€Å"economic analysis of competitive and strategic decisions; techniques for facilitating decision-making by groups; and computer modeling software and expert systems for decision support (Decision Analysis Society, 2009, pg. 1). These products and services will help other decision makers impact how decisions are framed. This is evident in the type of consumers who use their products. They include â€Å"practitioners, educators, and researchers with backgrounds in engineering, business, economics, statistics, psychology, and other social and applied sciences† (Decision Analysis Society, 2009, pg. 1). In his decision frame, he mainly considered the costs, benefits, and risks in the rational category and the rank, power status; individual/team self-interest; internal competition, turf wars; incentives, rewards, and sanctions in the politics column (Strategic Business Partners, 2009). The factors that Ron did not consider—at least no to the degree that he considered the other factors were instinct and tuition, emotion, symbols, metaphor, and creativity from the non-rational column and values and beliefs, ideology and ethics, organization identity, and culture/shared myths from the culture category. Any of these factors could have caused Ron to come to a different decision. It appears, at an overall glance, that his main motivation was money: How much is this going to cost me and what monetary gains will I get out of it in return? â€Å"Decision framing is based chiefly on subjective expert judgment. Experts provide their own beliefs in the form of their answers, which can be biased. There are many forms of biases: cultural, organizational, motivational, cognitive,

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Computers and Health :: Medicine Biology Technology Essays

Computers and Health Computers can be responsible for a number of diseases, such as: eye strains, wrist injuries, back problems, stomach ulcers or mental collapse. Not so long ago was it thought that computers, which could perform calculations and process data with high speed and complete accuracy, would free up humans to only work 3-4 hours a day. But now, humans are working harder than ever. Stress Stress is often a major sector of work related illness. Simply the though of computers can cause stress in some people. It is also stressful: * To be asked to complete a task, which is new to you and you are not sure that you will be able to cope with it; * To know you have more work to do, than you can finish, in the available time; * To have too little work to do and to be bored all day. The introduction of computers into the workplace can have harmful effects on the well beings of information workers at many different levels in an organisation. For example: * Some companies monitor their employees output. This can often increase stress levels. Symptoms include headaches, sleeplessness and stomach ulcers.) * Many peoples fare afraid of computers and fear that the will not learn new skills, or that their position of seniority will be undermined by computer 'whizz-kids'. * It can be almost impossible for people to get away from office work due to mobile, pagers laptop computers and modems. * 'Information overload' means that managers are often bombarded with more information than they can actually take-in. Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) These are the disorders affecting the neck, shoulders and upper limbs. It can result in numbness or tingling in the arms and hands, aching and stiffness in the arm, neck and shoulders, and an inability to lift objects. Some sufferers cannot even pour a cup of tea with out experiencing extreme pain. Eyestrain Computer users are prone to eyestrain due to long hours in front of a screen. There is no evidence that a computer can cause permanent damage to eyes, but glare, improper lighting, improper corrected vision and poor work practices all contribute to temporary eyestrain. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Radiation In normal day life we are exposed to ELF from sources such as, electricity from the mains, sunshine, fire, earths own magnetic field and computers. Studies have been carried out to investigate if there is a distinct link between miscarriages and ELF emitted by computers. Studies have vaguely showed that long hours spent at a VDU in the first trimester of pregnancy, has played a part in the leading to miscarriages. Computers, Health and the Law 'The Health and Safety Regulations of 1992' reads as follows:

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Culture Of Poverty Essay

Culture is a set of values and beliefs that influence the effectiveness also strategy formulation. It is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that people learn to produce behavioural norm. Poverty is being unable to provide yourself with comfort and material needs. Culture of poverty shows that those who are poor stay in poverty due to adapting the poverty burden. The world eliminates the culture of poverty through education and get their priorities straight and create micro-culture where the whole world will belong (Bass, 2005) I agree with the position that the poor are largely responsible for their own poverty because when they realize they are poor instead of working hard they start feeling helpless and not belonging and they feel that the society do not serve their needs. They feel they have no power therefore can not try to change their situation for the better and feel they are inferior and think that the rich are superior which make them not put effort to change their situation for the better. The poor also feel that they are unworthy and do not form any racial group and feel that they are unworthy and do not form any racial group and feel that they are discriminated by the members of the society. People who are poor do not know any history o becoming rich and acquiring wealth, they only know heir problems and shortcomings; they recognize only the poor conditions and only their neighborhood which is also living in poverty. Poor people have no knowedge, vision or ideas to compare themselves with other people who are rich for example they do not care whether they are in high class or low class. The poor should be encouraged to work hard and not accept the poverty burden in order to improve their lifestyle. CAUSES OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY RACISM This is the existence of a higher race and a lower race due to the higher race having superiority complex. This is as a result of having supernatural gifts that others do not have or being gifted in hunting and being courageous and being known to excel in war. this is recognized by possession of trophies gained after being a winner. The looser becomes the victim of the conqueror. When an individual experience personal superiority and see others as inferior social inequality will always be experienced (Fanning, 2000) SOCIAL STRATIFICATION This is where women politically and socially feel inferior. Old people are respected only when they are strong. In some tribes people rank high when they are initiated and also when they are granted new names. people are grouped together and accorded status depending on which group they belong either poor or rich. There are caste system where each individual is born in for example in India Brahmin is the caste at the top and untouchables is the bottom caste which is based on good or bad conduct. In Britain land was owned by nobility depending on family tradition, conduct or privileged who were the ruling group. SEXISM This is discriminating one another basing on gender for example women discrimination. These are attitudes or behaviours that make social roles to be stereotyped basing on gender. this also involves abusive behaviour to a person of opposite sex. In work place women are excluded in employment to the benefit of men. Employers fail to recruit women even though they have same or even higher qualifications than men. Women are also denied positions in politics whereby men dominate parliament with women being the minority. Sexism causes social inequality because women feel inferior to men and belief that they are weak and unproductive, they regard themselves with low esteem . they fail to use ideas they have and are not innovative. This makes all the work to be left to men to do and social inequality will always affect the society. EFFECTS OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY It brings about difference in religion where we have Christians, Muslims or Hindus of different religion and beliefs. Social class arises whereby those who belief they belong to same social class work together and leave out those of different social class (Bowen, 1948) Some people think they are inferiors and other superior leading to division and lack of unity. In terms of skin colour, there is radical distinction between black and white people. It can cause mental illness due to lack of improved technology and skills in treating illness. Low income earners lack basic needs due to lack of enough money to finance their basic needs. Unequal distribution of wealth between rich and poor in areas which are more productive than others for example mountain regions are more productive compared to lowland regions. REFERENCES 1. Madden Janice Fanning; Changes in Income inequality within US; W. E Upjohn Institute, 2000 2. Bowen Howard; Toward Social Economy; Rinehart, 1948 3. Bass Stephene; Reducing Poverty and sustaining the Environment; Earthscan,2005

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Immigration Reform The United States - 3271 Words

Immigration Reforms Amongst the many problems the United States face the one most Americans tend to focus on is the immigration â€Å"issue† they believe the country is going through. The way I see it immigration has played an important role in American history. Immigration has held a major role in shaping our country. Immigrants have provided many things such as customs, manufacturing, inventions, and entertainment. Many people today don t realize how greatly we have been affected by immigration. Before the era of rapid communications and transportation, America encouraged relatively open immigration to settle its empty lands. Over many years, the policies have changed and become more difficult for immigrants and their families. Too often do†¦show more content†¦But the main point or question that is failed to be asked in this subject is, does illegal immigration deserve the massive amount of attention it receives? In my opinion I don‘t really think it does. T here are many other issues that require our attention than immigration. By looking at the respected immigrants of the past and thinking about the issues in a clear and objective way, it becomes apparent that illegal immigration or legal immigration, for that matter is not as vital issue as many consider it to be. Most of the immigrants that come to this country are given the blames of many of the problems this county has. Most Americans believe that the issues with the economy, healthcare and unemployment are all the handy works of the illegal immigrants that come here. But in contrary of what Americans believe, immigrants are not to be blamed for the issues of the country. Actually according to New Study Declares Immigration to be a plus, it states that Immigration benefits the American economy and has little negative effect on the income and job opportunities of most native-born U.S. citizens. When you look at shops or restaurants, for example in California, Texas, or New York, wh o do you notice that s running most of those shops and restaurants? Immigrants, whether they re Mexican, Asian, or Natives. Some illegal immigrant should be considered essential to local businesses and even for individuals.